What is azoospermia?
Azoospermia is the absence of sperm in the ejaculate, and the diagnosis itself is confirmed after determining the absence of sperm in two consecutive ejaculates. Azoospermia can be divided into obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia. It is very important to determine what type of azoospermia is present.
Types of Azoospermia
Obstructive azoospermia involves a physical barrier that prevents sperm from coming out with ejaculation such as vasectomy, cysts, etc.
Sperm production is possible, but due to obstructions in the vas deferens, they do not reach the ejaculate and are not present on microscopic examination.
The causes can be congenital or acquired (injuries, operations or infections).
The solution to this form of azoospemia is surgical removal of the obstruction: PESA (percutaneous aspiration of sperm from the epididymis), MESA (microsurgical aspiration of sperm from the epididymis), TESA (Aspiration of sperm from the testis with a needle), TESE (Isolation of sperm from the testis)
Non-obstructive azoospermia is the absence of sperm in the seminal fluid due to abnormal production. It is a condition in which the testicles do not produce sperm. Around 60% of all cases of azoospermia are considered as non-obstructive azoospermia.
The most common causes of this condition are: genetic mutations or chromosomal disorders, bilateral cryptorchidism (undescended testicals), testicular inflammation, hormonal causes, radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
In addition to these factors, there are other conditions that can lead to testicular tissue damage such as: inadequate treatment of childhood diseases and high temperatures in the prepubertal period, constant exposure to negative chemical or physical agents (eg professional drivers, car painters, miners, etc.). whose trauma can be immediate or permanent.
Following the most modern medical world standards, our urologists manage to find sperm in patients diagnosed with non-obstructive azoospermia.